Helpful Terminology for Tang Dynasty Clothing

Primarily from BuYun Chen’s “Dressing for the Times: Fashion in Tang Dynasty China (618-907)” 2013 Columbia University PhD dissertation and some from Wikipedia (confirmed in other sources–I just wanted to get the characters for each item and Wikipedia had those where I could copy/paste them)

shan 衫 – unlined short robe or top

ru 襦 – short jacket

qun 裙 – skirt

ruqun 襦裙 – jacket and skirt ensemble

pibo 披帛 – long shawl

ao 袄 – coat

pao 袍- cloak

banbi 半臂 – cropped short-sleeved jacket

jianse qun 間色裙 – striped skirt

po 破 – sections of a skirt (early Tang (618-712) restricted skirts to 12 po, later they were restricted to 7 during the reign of Emperor Gaozong, then 5 in 826 by Emperor Wenzong)

shiliu qun 石榴裙 – pomegranate red skirt

bainiao qun 百鳥裙 – hundred bird feather skirt

tanling ruqun 坦领襦裙 – u-shaped neckline ruqun

qixiong ruqun 齊胸襦裙 – high-waisted/chest-high ruqun

daxiushan 大袖衫 – large-sleeve gown

hufu 胡服 – foreign/”barbarian” clothing

yuanlingpao/yuanlingshan 圓領袍/圓領衫 – round-collar jacket/robe

bixi 蔽膝 – a cloth attached from the waist, covering front of legs, for more formal occasions


weimao 帷帽 – wide-brimmed hat with a shoulder-length gauze veil, more popular in Tang than the more conservative mili

mili 羃䍦 – wide-brimmed hat with a long (full body) veil

futou 襆頭/幞頭 – lit. “head scarf”, black kerchief with ribbons dangling worn by men; later, hard ribbons were added that stuck out at the sides


Courtesan-/Sex-Related Terminology and Euphemisms

A lot of source material about courtesans in the Tang Dynasty is found in poetry of the time, and poetry is full of symbolism and euphemisms. Here are some euphemisms I’ve found while reading that can help you puzzle out what the flowery language is ACTUALLY talking about! I’ll include the associated characters whenever possible, and this list will update from time to time as I find more useful info.

My Chinese is terrible and all of these were taken from other sources/translations, so if I’ve gotten something wrong or if you know more terms or euphemisms, let me know in the comments!


ji 妓, chang 娼, chi – “For the purposes of this article, I will generally use the terms “entertainer” or “courtesan,” but these English terms are at best crude approximations; I shall argue that they do not capture important distinctions implied by the words ji and chang up to and through most of the Tang.” (Taken verbatim from Bossler, B., “Vocabularies of Pleasure”), sometimes also translated as “prostitute” or “whore”. Edward Schafer suggested that the term ji implied greater gentility than chang, but he did not explore the origins of the distinction; see his “Notes on T’ang Geisha,” Schafer Sinological Papers (1984), nos. 2, 4, 6, 7 (Library of University of California, Berkeley), no. 2, p. 4.

chia-ji/jia-ji – “household” courtesans/entertainers, privately owned, acquired either by being purchased or gifted

ming-ji 名妓- brothel courtesans/entertainers, usually owned by courtesans-turned madams

guan-ji 官妓- official courtesans/entertainers, owned by the government and assigned to civil officials

ying-ji 營妓- military courtesans/entertainers, owned by the government; note that these were not of lower class than the other types of courtesans–they served the military officials rather than being “camp follower”-type prostitutes

kung-ji – palace courtesans/entertainers, owned by the government

Note: Wang Shu-hu notes 23 different terms that refer to courtesans and prostitutes, so there are many more that I don’t have listed, see Wang, Chung-ku ch’ang-chi shih. (I have not actually read this article yet, as I don’t read Chinese, but I’m hunting down a copy and will see if I can get it translated.)

jiaofang – Entertainment Bureau, where entertainers/courtesans registered with the government

demimonde – a common romanticized term for female entertainers

changlou 倡 or 娼樓 – “entertainment pavilions” (brothels)

ji lou 妓樓 – courtesan/entertainment pavilion, see changlou

liyuan dizi 梨園弟子 – “Pear Garden disciples”, later a euphemism for courtesans and eventually a rude slur; the Pear Garden was the palace school for entertainers/courtesans

guanji 觀妓 – watching courtesans

tingji – listening to courtesans

tanxue – conversation and jokes

geling – singing lyrics and drinking games

changjia – a dashing and wealthy young man who frequented the houses of courtesans

yunji – a reserved and cultivated person

qie 妾 – concubine; these women were neither wives nor courtesans, but functioned like wives with fewer rights in a household, meant to bear the “husband” children and exclusively for him (as opposed to a house courtesan, who could be loaned out or gifted to others)


Long-legged horses – young girls, often used in context of them being sold as slaves

Silk socks (lo-wa) – a dancer’s feet

Se, meaning “color” or “beauty” – often insinuates sexuality

“Kingfisher pins” or “carmine sleeves” – imply beauties/beautiful women

Zhuanglou – either a woman’s boudoir or to a qinglou, a bordello/brothel

Genyi – euphemism for privy, also a person who works in the imperial wardrobe

Eastern mountain wanderings – poetic trope for dallying with courtesans

Spring boats, painted boats, flower boats – courtesan or prostitution boats, especially “notorious” in Yangchou

“State toppler” – a particularly beautiful woman, implies the dangers of beautiful women

“Fallen flower” – courtesan/prostitute

“Clouds and rain” – sex

Waiting for a flower to bloom – waiting for a girl to have her first menstruation and therefore be available for sex


Bossler, B. 2012. “Vocabularies of pleasure: Categorizing female entertainers in the late Tang Dynasty.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 72.1 (2012): 71-99.

Yao, P. 2002. “The Status of Pleasure: Courtesan and Literati Connections in T’ang China”. Journal of Women’s History. v. 14, No. 2, pp. 26-53.

Wang Shu-nu. 1933; reprint, 1988. Chung-kuo ch’ang-chi shih. (A history of prostitution in China). Shanghai: Shang-hai san-lien shu-tien.

Wangling Jinghua. 2009. “Singing Lips in Observation: Ninth-Century Chinese Poetry on Female Entertainers”. Ph.D. diss., Harvard University.

Schafer, E. 1984. “Notes on T’ang Geisha,” Schafer Sinological Papers. nos. 2, 4, 6, 7 (Library of University of California, Berkeley), no. 2, p. 4.